take A closer look
Elements of electrolysis:
Hydrogen ions (H+) which is the “acid” component of water
Hydroxyl ions (OH–) which is the “alkaline” component of water
O2 (oxygen gas: oxidant)
H2 (Hydrogen gas: reductant/therapeutic agent)
How it works:
Cathode (negative side, produces alkaline water)
At the cathodic electrode (typically platinum coated titanium plates), electrons are pushed through the water. Some of the hydrogen ions (H+) that were bound to the water molecules, take some of those electrons coming from the cathodic electrode. These hydrogen ions really want an electron to become hydrogen atoms (H). Once the Hydrogen ions (H+) receive an electron then they are no longer ions, but hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms are extremely reactive and will always seek to bond with another atom. Next, two hydrogen atoms pair-up with each other to form H2 gas (two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded together). When the hydrogen ion is removed from the water molecule, the remainder of the water molecule is OH–, or hydroxide. Hydroxide is the alkaline component of water, so because electrolysis is leaving behind more hydroxide, the pH of the water will have no choice but to rise. In simple terms, the increased in pH (becoming alkaline) is just a byproduct of H2 production. Electrolysis is essentially “stealing” a relatively small amount of hydrogen ions as there are quintillions of hydrogen ions in a glass water.
H2 production equation
2[H+] + 2 e– (electrons) = H2 (gas)
1) H+ ions take electrons from the power supply and become H atoms, then 2 H atoms pair-up to form H2 gas
2) the removal of H+ ions causes the pH of the water to rise, due to OH–.
H2 production and rising of the pH are the two major events which occur at the cathode, from the standpoint of redox chemistry. The rise in pH (hydroxide, OH–, strong base) is a consequence of H2 production and not necessarily a design goal in electrolysis. High pH is a side effect of H2 production.
Anode (positive side, produces acidic water)
At the anode, hydroxide (OH–) Ions are oxidized (loss of electrons). This means hydroxide (OH–) gives up electrons (oxidation) in the anodic electrode, which is the OX part of REDOX. Reduction and Oxidation must occur simultaneously. Hydroxide (OH–) will split into an Oxygen atom (O) and Hydrogen ion (H+). The oxygen atom then will bond with another oxygen atom (O) to form O2 (oxygen gas). The remaining Hydrogen ions will bond with water (H2O) to form hydronium (H3O+: strong acid). This is why the anode side produces acidic water, because electrolysis is removing Hydroxide (OH–, the alkaline component of water) and increasing the hydrogen ions (H+, acidic component of water) concentration. The water has no choice but to decrease in its pH.
2(H2O) ==> O2 + 4H+ + 4e–
4(OH–) ==> 2O2 + 4[H+] + 4 e–
However, if the source water has chloride (Cl–), it has the higher potential (over-potential) to oxidize first before the hydroxide (OH–). Chloride (Cl–) will oxidize at the anode to form chlorine gas (Cl2 ) which reacts with water to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong disinfectant and HCl (hydrochloric acid, which Immediately dissociates into H+ ions and (Cl–) ions): (H2O + Cl2 => HOCl + HCl)
Water ionizers H2 concentration: (0.1 to 1.0 mg/L (ppm)) depending on a multitude of factors.
Although the production of hydrogen gas during electrolysis is relatively easy, the producing of dissolved hydrogen in water, at therapeutic concentrations is more of a technical design challenge for water ionizers. There are many contributors to dissolved H2 production in ionizers, including the surface morphology (texture) of the plates, amount of water flow, speed of water flow, direction of water flow over the plates, amount of voltage applied (current density), the type of voltage applied (DC or pulsed), distance of the plates (gap), Mesh/solid plates (mesh appears to be superior to solid as it gives the current a path to travel), etc. Power supply is important but it is not the only factor. The best units on the market should be focused and designed to produce constantly high levels of dissolved H2 under a 9.5 pH, into water. The devices should have minimal maintenance requirements and maintain the dissolved H2 concentration for the duration of the lifespan of the unit.
Effervescent H2 Tablets
Basic Ingredients Breakdown:
Magnesium is an essential mineral for the human body including (Ca2+, Na+ and K+) also known as electrolytes. Magnesium is found in every cell of the human body and is vital in multiple functions in the human cell, including the activation of ATP. Magnesium is a cofactor for over 300 enzyme systems which means magnesium participants and is vital for a diverse range of biochemical reaction actives in the human body.
The H2 tablets use an elemental/metallic form of magnesium (Mg) which reacts with water to form H2 (molecular hydrogen) and MgOH (magnesium hydroxide). MgOH (magnesium hydroxide) dissociates (breaks down) 100% in the human body; leaving OH– (hydroxide) and ionic Mg (Mg++, Mg ion), the essential form of magnesium utilized by the human body. A large percentage individuals in the US are deficient in Mg as well as other electrolytes. Most H2 tablets provide 80 milligrams of Mg per tablet, so it is a great Mg supplement.
Malic Acid is an organic compound that is produced by the body during the citric acid cycle (cellular respiration). Malic acid contributes to the sour taste in most fruits. Malic acid can improve the function of the mitochondria and has potential ergogenic benefits (enhance performance) such as improved energy levels and pain reduction.
Fumaric acid is an organic compound that is produced by the body during the citric acid cycle (cellular respiration). Fumaric acid can also exert health benefits. Fumaric acid has been shown to activates the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway which helps the body defend itself from oxidative stress.
H2 tablets H2 concentration depends on multiple factors ( the type of bottle use, allowance of reaction time, temperature, type of H2 (Mg) tablet, etc), normally producing 1.0+ mg/L (ppm) in 16 oz (500 ml) within 15 min, and 2.0+ mg/L (ppm) plus, if left to react for 8+ plus hours.
HIM/HIT electrolytic cell produce H2 vastly difference the ionizers at the molecular level. Here is a basic description of the chemistry, which will allow you to understand how this amazing molecule is produced with “HIT”.
- Source water provides the anode/anodic electrode (positive side of the chamber). The anode is where oxidation occurs, which leads to an increase of H+ ion (protons). This is what provides the source of H+ ions for the creation of H2.
- PEM/SPE permits the transfer of H+ ions to cathode/cathodic electrode (negative side of the chamber).
- At cathode/ cathodic electrode, H+ ions combine with electrons provided by the power supply this is called reduction.
- Once H+ ions combine with an electron it is no longer an H+ ion, but and a highly reactive hydrogen atom. hydrogen atoms bonds with another H atom to form an H2 gas molecule.
- The hydrogen gas is transferred to be dissolved into the filtered source water.
- Oxygen gas produced at the anode (through oxidation of hydroxide) will be ventilated. Chlorine gas can be produced depending on source water, which will also be vented.
- PEM contains an electrolyte (SPE, solid polymer electrolyte), therefore not dependent on source water minerals for electrolysis to produce H2 gas.
- The lower electrical resistance between anode & cathode results in less voltage drop and efficient electrolytic production of H2.
Packaged H2 Water
Hydrogen is the smallest molecule in the universe and a neutral molecule. This means it can escape virtually all materials. Recent discoveries have shown most materials like glass, plastic, and steel actually force the hydrogen atoms of the H2 molecule to split apart at the surface of these materials, then pulls the individual atoms through the container, where they form up on the other side. Aluminum, which is now used for H2 beverages containers does not do this, so H2 is more content to remain inside solution for longer periods of time. Aluminum packages/Pouches for H2 water has demonstrated a shelf life of a year or more.
Most are aware that aluminum itself is not healthy for human body. Nonetheless, all aluminum cans and pouches for H2 water or other beverages, such coca cola have a polyethylene liner to keep the aluminum out of the beverage, ensuring the beverage is safe for consumption.