METHODS

the art of making hydrogen

Hydrogen Infusion Machines

These units are the newest iteration of hydrogen water devices on the market. These devices are unique, as they are the first real attempt to produce devices designed for dissolving higher levels of molecular hydrogen in water without affecting/elevating the pH of the water. These units use PEM/SPE (proton exchange membrane, solid polymer electrolyte) technology, which allows for the device to produce H2 no matter the source water conditions (RO, tap, well, high-TDS, low-TDS, etc). Some even have built-in dissolver technology, specifically designed for dissolving hydrogen gas into the water. These units are designed for one reason or purpose: consuming and using hydrogenated water.

Acronyms:
  • HIM: Hydrogen infusion machine
  • HIT: Hydrogen infusion technology
  • PEM: Proton exchange membrane/ Polymer electrolyte membrane
  • SPE: Solid polymer electrolyte
Characteristics:  

There are multiple designs of HIM/HIT units on the market, however, they all have similarities.

  1. Typically have lower flow rates than normal ionizers
  2. They use PEMs: These membranes are synthetic polymers that are design to only transfer protons across the membrane and conduct electricity. PEMs have outstanding performance qualities
  3. Not dependent on water conductivity to produce H2. (creates H2 water from RO, low-TDS, high-TDS waters)
  4. Less prone to scaling due to the fact the device does not increase pH, like ionizers
  5. More reliable in its ability to produce and maintain hydrogen concentration
  6. Normally only has one stream of water, no acidic water flow, like ionizers
  7. Typically has a DU (dissolver unit). This is a section within the water cell specifically designed for dissolving the hydrogen gas into solution; due to the fact H2 has low solubility in water
  8. HIM/HIT generally produces between 0.8 to 1.5 mg/L (ppm) of dissolved molecular hydrogen. These types of devices that utilize this type of technology (PEM/SPE), is improving rapidly, which will result in greater dissolved hydrogen concentrations and efficiency of these units

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water ionizers

Water Electrolysis: Decomposition of water molecules via electrical current

Electrolysis Definition: Chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions.

During the process of electrolysis, two reactions MUST occur simultaneously, one at the cathode (negative) and one at the anode (positive)

These pairs of reactions are called “Redox” reactions.

Reduction: The addition of electrons from the power supply occurs at the cathode

Oxidation: The removal of electrons back to the power supply occurs at the anode.

Within water ionizers, the cathode and anode chambers are isolated from each other, separated by an ionic membrane, which only allowing electrons to pass. Water does not start with dissolved hydrogen gas (H2), it is produced by electrolysis.

This type of water appears in scientific literature as: Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), Hydrogen-rich water, Electrolyzed Water,  Alkaline reduced water (ARW), Reduced Water. 1

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hydrogen magnesium tablets

H2 tablets create hydrogen gas via the reaction of magnesium to water as follows:

Mg + 2H2O => H2 + Mg(OH)2

H2 magnesium tablets utilize elemental magnesium powder (microparticles) for producing H2 gas.  The tablets contain simple sugars such as dextrose, maltose, etc and acids such as malic acid, tartaric acid, etc. The sugars act as binders to hold the tablets together and the acids serves other purposes such as benefiting the reaction. 

The tablets are one of the most affordable and convenient ways to experiencing H2 therapeutic benefits anywhere. 2

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Hydrogen Inhalation 

Hydrogen inhalation is one of the primary ways of administering molecular hydrogen to the human body. H2 inhalation units produce H2 gas through the process of water electrolysis. There are multiple variations of H2 inhalation devices on the market today. These include pure H2 gas generators, oxyhydrogen units (H2/O2), and devices that mix H2 with air, resulting in 2~7% H2 gas by volume; 2~4% H2 gas inhalation is what is normally seen throughout scientific studies. This ensures the safety of the person receiving treatment, as H2 concentrations under 4% are non-explosive. This administration method has shown great therapeutic potential and benefit in the scientific literature, as it allows large amounts of H2 gas to enter the bloodstream via the lungs to be readily distributed throughout the whole body.

H2  Inhalation Types:
  1. Pure H2 (PEM/SPE)
  2.  Oxyhydrogen (Browns gas)
  3.  H2 Mixed Air

These devices are starting to become more popular in the marketplace, and they will likely continue to gain popularity as H2 awareness grows and technologies continue to improve.

Portable Hydrogen Water Generators 

Portable hydrogen water generators are handheld electrolysis devices. These devices can use either the standard ionizer technology (producing H2 and increasing pH as a byproduct) or the new HIM/HIT technology (produces H2, does not increase pH). These devices are becoming very popular on the market today. Depending on the manufacture and quality of the device, they can produce 0.4 to 1.6 mg/L (ppm) generally in 8 to 16 oz  (250-500ml) in a relatively short matter of time (5- 10 mins).

Advantages of H2 water portables:
  1. Simple to use
  2. Produces H2 water anywhere with filtered water or bottled water
  3. HIM/HIT versions will not influence the taste of the water, or change pH. (This does not apply for standard ERW ones. pH can influence taste and some individuals are pH sensitive)
  4. Charges similar to smartphone (USB, micro USB, AC wall adaptor)
  5. Convenient; produces H2 water within 5 mins

For more information on the chemistry of these devices pertain to electrolysis, check out Water electrolysis and HIM/HIT (PEM/SPE) section.

Other Methods 

Intraperitoneal injection 

Hydrogen intraperitoneal injection (IP injection) is the injection of a hydrogen-infused solution into the peritoneum (body cavity). Typically, this solution is hydrogen saline. This method is applied more to animals in animal studies than humans in human studies.

Intravenous Drip Infusion of Hydrogen Saline

An intravenous drip is also known as the acronym “IV”. This application/method of administration will be used more in a clinical and medical setting, such as a hospital. This method of administration of molecular hydrogen has demonstrated to be beneficial for a wide variety of degenerative diseases.

Hydrogen saline Eye drops

This application is simple and effective, infusing molecular hydrogen into saline solution meant for the eye. This option is not currently available to the public, but does appear in scientific literature.

Topical Hydrogen 

Hydrogen Baths
Hydrogen baths are the most popular topical application of molecular hydrogen to date. Hydrogen bath devices increase the dissolved hydrogen levels in the bath water similar to hydrogen water generating devices. There are multiple studies demonstrating the therapeutic effects of hydrogen baths for skin disorders. This method of administration is seen more in China and Japan, where there are clinics that offer hydrogen baths to patients. There are devices for hydrogen baths on the market primarily in Asia, while options in the US are still relatively few.
Cream/ Foam
Hydrogen gas can be applied topically via H2 cream and H2 foam. Since H2 can be infused into a wide range of aqueous solutions and oil (lipid) based solutions, it is a prime candidate for topical medication applications. Of course, because H2 gas can easily escape from most packaging materials, proper packaging is required to contain the gas and make this application feasible. Also, since hydrogen is a gas, it can easily be infused into a foam medium. These applications will probably be more medically and commercially prevalent in the future.

Ingestible tablets 

Magnesium

Ingestible Mg H2 tablets work off the same principle as solubilized H2 Mg tablets. The reactants in the tablets will produce H2 gas once they come in contact with water or acid in the stomach.

Mg + 2H2O =>Mg(OH)2  + H2 

Mg + 2HCl => MgCl2 + H2

This method may not be as effective as solubilized H2 (Mg) tablets, which allows dissolve H2 to directly enter into the bloodstream via water absorption through the small intestine into the portal vein. When ingestible H2 tablets are consumed, the H2 gas that is generated in the stomach has to find available fluid (water) to dissolve into in order to travel with water and be be absorbed into the bloodstream via the small intestine. For this reason, it is hard to determine how much hydrogen gas a person is exposing their body to. Thus, this method of ingesting H2 has its limitations when compared to solubilized H2(Mg) tablets (open-glass and closed container).

Packaged H2 Water

Pouches and/or Canned

Hydrogen water is now being packaged into aluminum pouches/cans. These typically contain 8 to 16 oz of water at an H2 concentration of 0.5 to 2.0+ mg/L (ppm). However, this is starting to change as manufacturers are improving their process allowing for higher H2 concentrations per container. They are convenient and can be an effective way of consuming H2, although this is not the most cost-effective way to consume H2 daily.

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h2 water questions

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Read up on the MYTHS of HYDROGEN

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