Tywon Hubbard
Tywon has been involved in the hydrogen industry for the last 5 years on many different levels. These levels include sales, corporate, ownership, third-party, product development, and education. He has been mentored by the industry's top researchers, educators, and engineers. He enjoys writing about hydrogen in an in-depth and technical manner and will give as much information as needed to help the reader understand the topic.

The Ideal Hydrogen Water System

Over the past year, I have been addressing this question: “What is the ideal hydrogen water system?” a ton via email with clients and it always involves certain criteria or parameters by which I make my judgments. I figured it is time to share my thoughts with the world and openly discuss my opinion of an ideal hydrogen water system based on the current research regarding molecular hydrogen.

Now first and foremost, I do want to acknowledge the fact that it can be confusing and tough to navigate the therapeutic hydrogen industry and/or market, especially when you’re trying to find a system that can provide legitimate therapeutic concentrations of molecular hydrogen dissolved into the water. I definitely understand how individuals can take months to source an H2 water device and still come away disappointed. This is one of the primary reasons I started my organization, H2Hubb, to use my knowledge and experience within this industry to help people navigate the therapeutic hydrogen market. This is why I do in-depth tests and analyze a variety of hydrogen products and recommend the ones that meet our standards, which are formed to coincide with the current preliminary standards set forth by IHSA (International Hydrogen Standards Association/leading experts in the industry)[1] and MHI (Molecular Hydrogen Institute)[2].

With our company’s purpose in mind, I would like to explain to you my current opinion of what an ideal hydrogen water system would be or be able to do based on current scientific data for hydrogen (strictly speaking from the vantage point of hydrogen, not including water quality/filtration, maintenance, etc). The first aspect you must be aware of is there is no official and/or specific dosage level of molecular hydrogen that has been specified yet by researchers or experts in the field. However, the scientific research is suggesting 1~3 milligrams of H2 per day appears to be therapeutic for humans and some researchers are implying 1.8~7.2 mg of H2 per day might be needed to see clinical effects.* This suggested dosage or milligrams per day of molecular hydrogen should be striven for daily to ensure one might receive the therapeutic benefits of hydrogen. The preliminary suggested dosage also coincides with MHI’s stance on the subject as well.** 

*This study speculates that the concentration of H2 needed to produce a biological therapeutic effect in humans is 0.9 mmol to 3.6 mmol a day. This would convert to 1.8~7.2 mg of H2 per day.

0.9 mMol (DH) x 2.02 (H2 molar mass) = 1.8 mg
3.6 mM (DH) x 2.02 (H2 molar mass) = 7.2 mg

“By quantifying the amount of H2 administered in animal experiments, it is possible to speculate on the H2 dose needed for biological effects in vivo. From studies using H2-enriched drinking water (0.3 to 0.6 mM H2), an effective H2 dose can be calculated roughly as the product of H2 concentration and amount of daily water intake. Given a model using 200-g animals and 20 ml of enriched water intake daily, the H2 ingested would be 3–6 × 10−5 mmol/g/day, which would be equivalent to 1.8–3.6 mmol/day for an average-weight (60 kg) human; therefore, this may be the dose needed to achieve biological effects in the clinical setting. Consistent with this speculation, it was reported that drinking 1.5 L of H2-enriched water (approximately 0.6 mM) daily for 8 weeks (that is, 0.9 mmol of H2 ingested daily) reduced urinary oxidative product (malondialdehyde) and increased antioxidant (superoxide dismutase) levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome [72]. Accordingly, it is thought that at least this dosage may be required to elicit any clinical effect in humans.”[3]

**MHI (Molecular Hydrogen Institute):

How much hydrogen water should I drink to get the benefits?

That is the same question scientists are asking and is still under investigation. However, the animal and human studies generally provide about 0.5 to 1.6 mg or more of H2 per day, and these doses show statistically significant benefits. So, if your water has a concentration of 1 mg/L (equivalent to 1 ppm, parts per million), then two liters will give you 2 mg of H2. Although the effective concentration for some people and some diseases may be lower and/or higher, these doses are simply what have been seen to exert benefits.”

This is key because researchers are still trying to figure out proper dosing for different disease models and for general health. In fact, they have figured out that many diseases are dose-dependent, meaning the H2 blood concentration, and/or cell and tissue concentration has to be high enough to induce a therapeutic effect and the more hydrogen the greater the effect. This is why you see many human preclinical and clinical studies with hydrogen water at a dissolved hydrogen concentration of 4.0~10 ppm and having the participants in the study in taking 2~10 mg of H2 a day. The researchers are not only trying to elucidate hydrogen’s primary targets and proper dosing, but by using higher concentrations and milligrams/day may help to cut out the guessing game, which is the same strategy I try to point people towards.

Research to Illustrate This Point:

“On a daily basis, the participants will drink 1,000 mL of saturated H2-water containing 5 mM of dissolved H2 (using Hydrogen 7.0, supplied by Ecomo International Co., Ltd. [Fukuoka, Japan]; patent No: PCT/JP2011/063601) for 72 weeks. “[4]

Note:

5 mM (DH) x 2.02 (H2 molar mass) = 10 mg/L (ppm)

10 mg/L (ppm) x 1000 ml (1 liter, or 33.8 oz) = 10 mg of H2 per day!

“Subjects received either HRW or placebo, which was consumed the day before and the day of the testing. HRW was delivered using the hydrogen-producing tablets, DrinkHRW (5 mg of H2).”[5]

“The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the high-H2 group, who drank high-H2 water containing 7 ppm H2 (3.5 mg H2 in 500 mL water); and the placebo group.”[6]

“Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drank 530 ml of water containing 4 to 5 ppm (2.65 mg) molecular hydrogen (high H2 water) every day for 4 weeks. After a 4-week wash-out period, the patients drank the high H2 water for another 4 weeks.”[7]

In my opinion, understanding the above information is a necessary foundation when accessing the market for any H2 water system or H2 product.

So, in essence, an ideal hydrogen water system should allow you to conveniently achieve this H2 milligram mark (1~3 mg of H2) daily with ease and consistently. There are a few H2 technologies on the market that appear to be effective at this. However, currently based on our testing the batch-pressurized H2 water devices appear to be among the top devices available.

What is a Batch-Pressurized H2 water system?

Batch-Pressurized H2 water systems (BP-H2 Water Systems) are a unique class of H2 water units that allow you the ability to consume high mg/L (ppm) hydrogen-rich water daily. There are not many H2 water systems in the world that utilize this particular technology and only a couple of specialized manufacturers that produce these systems. Batch-pressurized units (view one here) use water electrolysis similar to water ionizers but with a Nafion (115, 117, etc) membrane, also called a PEM or proton exchange membrane to generate the hydrogen gas. This allows the system to produce hydrogen gas without altering the pH of the reservoir water. Also, they can produce H2 gas with any source water and are not dependent on minerals or source water conductivity to produce H2 gas. The conductivity is provided by the actual PEM membrane aka solid polymer electrolyte. These systems have an internal reservoir that generally holds about 2.0 liters~1.0+ gal (68~170 oz) and will infuse/dissolve 2.0~5.0+ mg/L (ppm) of H2 into the water. This means the internal reservoir would theoretically contain 10~25+ mg of H2 within a 2~5-liter reservoir (68~170 oz), which is amazing and a technological feat based on current H2 technologies. The reason these systems can generate this high H2 level is due to the fact the H2 water reservoir is pressurized by the H2 generated and internal pump within the unit to dissolve more H2 into solution, above 1 atm (14.7 lbf/in.2 or normal atmospheric pressure). Hydrogen’s solubility (saturation) maximum is 1.57 mg/L (ppm) @ 25C.

Side note: There is a ton of false information circulating the internet and YouTube concerning hydrogen water’s solubility and it’s maximum concentration when dissolved into water. Remember this if you can increase partial pressure (atmospheric pressure: ATM, psi, bars, etc) you can dissolve more hydrogen gas into the water above 1.57 mg/L (ppm). Dissolved gases in solution are based on Henry’s gas law which is a function of temperature and pressure. These units (BP-H2 Water Systems) increase the partial pressure inside the H2 water reservoir and dissolve or increase the H2 concentration of the water making them a viable means of administering higher levels of molecular hydrogen to the human body.

“The great advantage of using H2 is also the wide spectrum of administration possibilities available to the organism – by inhalation, drinking H2-rich water produced with pressure or using H2-producing tablets, using H2-rich saline solution, or taking an H2 bath [8,11].”[8]

This also means the maximum dissolved H2 readings do not result instantaneously and they do not function in the same manner as water ionizers or typical flow-through HIMs (hydrogen infusion machines) that produce H2 water instantly. They normally have a 15~30 min cycle of producing and dissolving H2 into the reservoir water at a high level and the maximum dissolved level of H2 in the reservoir normally is seen first thing in the morning after the unit has been running all night (allows for hydrogen gas to equalize at the reservoir pressure (5~7 atm): equilibrium can take some time) and after the PEM is broken in (normally can take a couple of weeks at max). Regardless, BP-H2 water systems allows you to dispense glasses of high mg/L (ppm) H2 water on demand and some will automatically refill the chamber or reservoir of the device after 12 oz of water is dispensed. This process puts BP-H2 water systems in a class of their own among other H2 water devices currently on the market. I call them tier 3 H2 water devices, which means it is easier to hit higher H2 milligrams/day (3~10+ mg). A first tier (tier 1) hydrogen-water device means they can provide the lower-end of the suggested therapeutic range of hydrogen (0.5~1.0 mg of H2 per day), however, they struggle to provide the higher-end (3~10+ mg of H2 per day).

For example: 1.0 mg/L (ppm) x 1 Liter (33.8 oz) = 1.0 mg of H2

If you wanted to ingest 4 mg of hydrogen gas in a day you would have to drink 4 Liters (1 gal) of water at 1 mg/L (ppm) (1.0 ppm x 1 Liter = 1 mg x 4 times/day = 4.0 mg of H2). That is extremely hard for most individuals. 

Another added advantage to BP-H2 Water Systems is that it comes with an internal water cooler which will increase hydrogen’s solubility (dissolve more H2) and increase hydrogen gas retention (increase the half-life of H2 gas dissolved into water, which is around 2 hours @ SATP or 25 C).

“The H2 content in H2 water, made by either dissolving electrolyzed hydrogen into pure water (H2 bubbled water) or utilizing electrochemical reaction of magnesium with water (H2/Mg water), declined with a half-time of ∼2 h and almost disappeared after 8 h (Figure 1).”[9]

This feature is great because it helps to ensure more hydrogen gas will dissolve into the water (colder water can improve or raise hydrogen gas solubility) but also that hydrogen gas will not rapidly dissipate but actually slows the rate of dissipating, helping to store H2 water better in the reservoir of the device but also in insulated water bottles that people might use.

Just to show you how important the increase pressure and water temperature features are, take a look at some examples I made to highlight these points:

As mentioned above, hydrogen gas solubility is a function of temperature and pressure (atm or partial pressure) and is based on Henry’s Gas Law. This means if you increase partial pressure or atmospheric pressure you can dissolve more H2 in water above 1.57 mg/L (ppm), which is hydrogen gas solubility (saturation) level under normal atmospheric pressure @ 25 C (SATP).

The solubility of H2 is 1.56 mg/L at standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP).”[10]

For example: at 1 atm (14.7 lbf/in.2 or normal atmospheric pressure) hydrogen’s solubility (saturation) maximum is 1.57 mg/L (ppm) @ 25C (SATP). However, at 5 atm (73.5 lbf/in.2) hydrogen’s solubility (saturation) maximum is 7.86 mg/L (ppm) @ 25 C (SATP).

Keep in mind temperature plays a factor in this as well. The colder the water’s temperature the slower the dissipation rate of hydrogen gas from water (half-life is around 2 hours @25 C (SATP)) but also it can increase molecular hydrogen solubility as well.

For example: @ 0 C (32 F) and 1 atm (14.7 lbf/in.2 or normal atmospheric pressure) hydrogen’s  solubility (saturation ) maximum is 1.96 mg/L (ppm). That is a 25% increase in H2‘s solubility.”

Overall the technology is extremely impressive and I have been able to analyze this type of tech on an in-depth level for over 2 years now. The technology improves the water’s therapeutic potential immensely and helps people ingest higher concentrations of dissolved hydrogen in water, which are typically only seen in studies.  Most importantly,  this does not mean Batch-pressurized H2 water systems are perfect. No technology is perfect nor fits all situations. But currently, based on our testing they are among the best technologies for H2 water systems. Now, that you understand the technology, how does this type of system help you hit the suggested daily milligram H2 marks as well as relate to another important aspect of H2 research?

Top 3 reasons BP-H2 Water Systems are an Ideal H2 Water System:

BP-H2 Water Systems are Great for Ingesting Higher Milligrams of Hydrogen:

They let you ingest more hydrogen gas with a lower volume of water:

Many companies focus on ppms (parts per million) but ppms are only half the story and are somewhat irrelevant in terms of dosage unless you know the volume of water (ie. 500 ml, 1 liter, etc). Since ppms are equal to milligrams per liter (mg/L), individuals can use this simple formula to figure up how much hydrogen they are ingesting per day.

Formula: 1.0 ppm H2 x 1.0 liter (33.8 oz) = 1.0 mg of H2.

The higher mg/L (ppm) a device can produce in a liter (batch-pressurized or flow-through H2 water systems) the better, and the less water is needed to hit the target milligram mark/day.

For example, let’s say your H2 water system can dissolve 3.5 ppm of hydrogen and can provide that concentration in a liter of water. If you drank a liter of that water you would have consumed 3.5 mg of hydrogen.

3.5 mg/L (ppm) H2 x 1.0 liter (33.8 oz) = 3.5 mg Ingested

We have made this easy for you and have developed an H2 calculator that will allow you to plug in these numbers (concentration and volume) and it will give you your ingested milligrams of H2.

H2 Calculator! 

BP-H2 Water Systems are Great for The Intermittent Exposure Effect of Hydrogen!:

Intermittent exposure (pulse effect) of H2 is appearing in the scientific literature to be more effective than continual exposure all day long (ie. sipping small amounts of hydrogen water every hour). Intermittent exposure is best done with high mg/L (ppm) H2 water (in terms of H2 water not accounting for other administration methods). When ingesting hydrogen water it only takes about 5~15 minutes for the dissolved hydrogen gas in the water to travel through the GI tract, diffuse the intestinal barrier (via small intestine) and enter the bloodstream (via the portal vein and/or venous system).

“Ingestion of HRW reaches a peak in 5–15 min and returns to baseline levels 45–90 min after administration depending on the administered dose [110].[11]

In 15~30 minutes after consuming the water, your blood/cellular H2 level will reach its peak and gradually come back down to your basal level (1~5 µmol/L) within 45~90 mins. The goal is to spike your blood/cellular levels to 10~20+ µmol/L of H2 (therapeutic) influencing the cellular homeostatic process, allowing hydrogen to modulate (stimulate) metabolic pathways, signal transduction, and active transcription factors leading to gene expression. Since, BP-H2 Water Systems allows you to ingest more hydrogen gas in a smaller volume of water. This means you can spike your H2 levels higher and easier with this water and repeat the process

For instance: if a person is 170 lb that means his body holds about 43 liters of water. If he were to drink 1 liter (33.8 oz) of water with a dissolved hydrogen concentration of 3.5 mg/L (ppm) he would consume 3.5 mg of H2.

3.5 mg ≈ (converts to) 1736.2 µmol of H2 ingested

1736.2 µmol of H2 / 43 liters (170lb) = 40 µmol/L of H2 at a peak H2 blood/cellular level (theoretical maximum, not homogeneous but heterogeneous, different organs or tissues will differ in µmol/L concentration).

10~20+ µmol/L appears to be therapeutic in human studies

This is just an example. There are always losses and other factors to consider such as plateaus under normal internal pressure of the human body. Regardless, high ppm water gives you the best possible chance to expose your body and cells to therapeutic levels of H2 to induce therapeutic effects.

Plus you can also induce the pulse effect a number of times a day.

1.75 mg of H2: morning, afternoon, and evening

H2 water: 3.5+ mg/L (ppm) x 500 ml (0.5L) = 1.75 mg of H2

Morning: 1.75 mg of H2
Afternoon: 1.75 mg of H2
Evening: 1.75 mg of H2

1.75 x 3 times = 5.25 mg of H2 for the day in only 1.5L of water consumed

BP-H2 Water Systems Give You Peace of Mind You’re Ingesting Enough H2!:

Lastly, there is nothing worse than investing a large amount of money into an H2 water system and find out you have to consume a gallon of water a day for it to be therapeutic or that it doesn’t dissolve hydrogen well at all. Getting a reputable high concentration hydrogen water system adds a great sense of security and comfort that your water is therapeutic at all times and there is no extra tweaking to the source water or system that is needed to increase the H2 levels.

Conclusion

Based on all the information stated above I believe Batch-Pressurized H2 water systems are an ideal hydrogen water system based on actual research regarding molecular hydrogen and/or hydrogen water. I must reiterate the purpose of this article is not to demonstrate or say that BP-H2 Water Systems are a perfect system. They are not perfect nor will meet everyone’s preferences, but the technology has a high therapeutic value when viewed in light of  the scientific literature and why, in my opinion, they are an ideal hydrogen water system. So if you’re interested in increasing your odds of receiving the therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen via hydrogen-rich water and to consume concentrations similar to what is being used in human  studies, BP-H2 Water Systems are the logical way to go!

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